Andrew Wilson:  Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy, 1

Michael Koortbojian:  A Painted Exemplum at Rome's Temple of Liberty, 33

Mary Jaeger:  Cicero and Archimedes' Tomb, 49

Ruth Morello:  Livy's Alexander Digression (9.17-19): Counterfactuals and Apologetics, 62

John Moles:  Reconstructing Plancus (Horace, C. 1.7), 86

John Henderson:  Columella's Living Hedge: the Roman Gardening Book, 110

R. R. R. Smith:  The Statue Monument of Oecumenius: a New Portrait of a Late Antique Governor from Aphrodisias, 134

Danuta Shanzer:  Avulsa a Latere Meo: Augustine's Spare Rib -- Confessions 6.15.25, 157



Erich S. Gruen:  Innovation and Restraint (reviews A. K. Bowman, P. Garnsey and D. Rathbone (eds), The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd edition) Vol. XI. The High Empire, A.D. 70-192), 177

A. D. Lee:  Decoding Late Roman Law (reviews J. Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity; T. Honoré, Law in the Crisis of Empire, 379-455 AD: The Theodosian Dynasty and its Quaestors; J. F. Matthews, Laying Down the Law: A Study of the Theodosian Code), 185


REVIEWS (in alphabetical order)


Amann, P., Die Etruskerin. Geschlechterverhältnis und Stellung der Frau im frühen Etrurien (9.–5. Jh v. Chr.) (by S. Haynes), 210

Athanassiadi, P., and M. Frede (Eds), Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (by F. R. Trombley), 263

Auhagen, U., Der Monolog bei Ovid (by B. Weiden Boyd), 243

Barkan, L., Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture (by Y. Haskell), 220

Bergmann, M., Chiragan, Aphrodisias, Konstantinopel: zur mythologischen Skulptur der Spätantike (by J. Elsner), 268

Beutel, F., Vergangenheit als Politik. Neue Aspekte im Werk des Jungeren Plinius (by J. Henderson), 253

Bispham, E., and C. Smith (Eds), Religion in Archaic and Republican Rome and Italy: Evidence and Experience (by S. J. Green), 228

Bouquet, J., Le songe dans l’épopée latine d’Ennius à Claudien (by M. Brady), 224

Bowman, A. K., and E. Rogan (Eds), Agriculture in Egypt from Pharaonic to Modern Times (by D. W. Rathbone), 201

Braudel, F., The Mediterranean in the Ancient World (by L. Nixon), 195

Bretzigheimer, G., Ovids Amores: Poetik in der Erotik (by S. Wheeler), 244

Brilliant, R., My Laocoön: Alternative Claims in the Interpretation of Artworks (by C. Edwards), 219

Burton, P., The Old Latin Gospels. A Study of their Texts and Language (by J. Clackson), 265

Campbell. B., The Writings of the Roman Land Surveyors. Introduction, Text, Translation and Commentary (by S. Cuomo), 200

Chassignet, M. (Ed.), L’annalistique romaine. Tome II. L’annalistique moyenne (by E. Bispham), 199

Claridge, A., Rome: an Oxford Archaeological Guide (by E. Bispham), 218

Clarke, K., Between Geography and History: Hellenistic Constructions of the Roman World (by M. Beagon), 198

Conybeare, C., Paulinus Noster: Self and Symbols in the Letters of Paulinus of Nola (by J. O’Donnell), 266

Courtney, E., A Companion to Petronius (by N. Holzberg), 249

Cristofani, M., Etruschi e altre genti nell’Italia preromana. Mobilità in età arcaica (by V. Izzet), 208

Croke, B., Count Marcellinus and his Chronicle (by R. W. Burgess), 267

Davies, P. J. E., Death and the Emperor: Roman Imperial Funerary Monuments from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius (by J. T. Peña), 237

Dixon, S. (Ed.), Childhood, Class and Kin in the Roman World (by V. Hope), 205

Duff, T., Plutarch’s Lives: Exploring Virtue and Vice (by A. Zadorojnyi), 254

Egelhaaf-Gaiser, U., Kultraüme im römischen Alltag: das Isisbuch des Apuleius und der Ort der Religion im Kaiserzeitlichen Rom  (by R. May), 258

Erdmann, M., Überredende Reden in Vergils Aeneis (by I. Gildenhard), 241

Erdrich, M., Rom und die Barbaren. Das Verhältnis zwischen dem Imperium romanum und den germanischen Stämmen vor seiner Nordwestgrenze von der späten römischen Republik bis zum gallischen Sonderreich (by M. Carroll), 215

Ferris, I. M., Enemies of Rome: Barbarians through Roman Eyes (by K. Milnor), 214

Flemming, R., Medicine and the Making of Roman Women: Gender, Nature, and Authority from Celsus to Galen (by L. T. Pearcy), 204

Fraschetti, A. (Ed.), La commemorazione di Germanico nella documentazione epigrafica: Tabula Hebana e Tabula Siarensis (by B. M. Levick), 236

Gale, M. R., Virgil on the Nature of Things: the Georgics, Lucretius and the Didcatic Tradition (by J. Farrell), 239

Garnsey, P., and C. Humfress, The Evolution of the Late Antique World (by D. E. Trout), 259

Gee, E., Ovid, Aratus and Augustus: Astronomy in Ovid’s Fasti (by M. Fox), 246

Giannichedda, E. (Ed.), Filattiera-Sorano: l’insediamento di età romana e tardoantica. Scavi 1986–1995 (by N. Christie), 269

Giesecke, A. L., Atoms, Ataraxy and Allusion: Cross-generic Imitation of the De Rerum Natura in Early Augustan Poetry (by M. R. Gale), 232

Giovannini, A. (Ed.), La révolution romaine après Ronald Syme. Bilans et perspectives (by N. Morley), 197

Godman, P., The Silent Masters: Latin Literature and its Censors in the High Middle Ages (by J. Barry), 228

Goldhill, S. (Ed.), Being Greek under Rome: Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic and the Development of Empire (by S. J. Harrison), 256

Grahame, G., Reading Space: Social Interaction and Identity in the Houses of Roman Pompeii (by M. George), 238

Gunderson, E., Staging Masculinity: the Rhetoric of Performance in the Roman World (by D. Fredrick), 206

Harrison, G. W. M. (Ed.), Seneca in Performance (by H. M. Hine), 251

Hartmann, U., Das Palmyrenische Teilreich, Oriens et Occidens (by T. Kaizer), 263

Hill, D. E., Ovid: Metamorphoses XIII–XV. Edited with an Introduction, Translation and Notes (by P. E. Knox), 247

Hine, H. M., Seneca: Medea (by R. J. Tarrant), 251

Hodges, R., Visions of Rome. Thomas Ashby Archaeologist (by T. Rasmussen), 221

Horden, P., and N. Purcell, The Corrupting Sea. A Study of Mediterranean History (by L. Nixon), 195

Hunink, V., Apuleius of Madauros: Florida. Edited with a Commentary (by R. May), 258

Hurley, D. W., Suetonius: Divus Claudius (by V. E. Pagán), 252

Johnson, W. R., Lucretius and the Modern World (by G. Campbell), 232

Leyerle, B., Theatrical Shows and Ascetic Lives. John Chrysostom’s Attack on Spiritual Marriage (by W. Mayer), 266

Lo Cascio, E., and D. W. Rathbone (Eds), Production and Public Powers in Classical Antiquity (by C. Bruun)        , 201

Luciani, S., L’éclaire immobile dans la plaine, philosophie et poétique du temps chez Lucrèce (by M. R. Gale), 232

Maetzke, G. (Ed.), Identità e civiltà dei Sabini (by V. Izzet), 208

McCarthy, K., Slaves, Masters and the Art of Authority in Plautine Comedy (by A. Sharrock), 231

McKinley, K. L., Reading the Ovidian Heroine. ‘Metamorphoses’ Commentaries 1100–1618 (by M. Skoie), 248

Meyer, H., Prunkkameen und Staatsdenkmäler römischer Kaiser: Neue Perspektiven zur Kunst der frühen Prinzipatzeit (by S. Hales), 238

Miller, D. A., The Epic Hero (by B. D. A. Tipping), 223

Mitchell, S., and G. Greatrex (Eds), Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (by R. Rees), 260

Nadaï, J. C. de, Rhétorique et poétique dans la Pharsale de Lucain: la Crise de la représentation dans la poésie antique (by C. Tesoriero), 250

Nappa, C., Aspects of Catullus’ Social Fiction (by D. Wray), 234

Noy, D., Foreigners at Rome: Citizens and Strangers (by C. Vout), 203

Oxé, A., H. Comfort and P. Kenrick, Corpus Vasorum Arretinorum (by R. J. A. Wilson), 212

Payne, A., A. Kuttner and R. Smick (Eds), Antiquity and its Interpreters (by C. Edwards), 219

Putnam, M. C. J., Horace’s Carmen Saeculare. Ritual Magic and the Poet’s Art (by J. Henderson), 242

Reeson, J. (Ed.), Ovid Heroides 11, 13 and 14. A Commentary (by P. E. Knox), 245

Riggsby, A. M., Crime and Community in Ciceronian Rome (by C. P. Craig), 230

Ripoll López, G., Toréutica de la Bética (siglos VI y VII D.C.) (by A. Coroleu), 270

Satlow, M. L., Jewish Marriage in Antiquity (by A. Tropper), 207

Schmit-Neuerburg, T., Vergils Aeneis und die antike Homerexegese: Untersuchungen zum Einfluss ethischer und kritischer Homerrezeption auf Imitatio und Aemulatio Vergils (by D. P. Nelis), 240

Sear, D. R., Roman Coins and their Values Vol. I: the Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280BC–AD96 (by K. Sugden), 216

Sharrock, A., and H. Morales (Eds),  Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations (by J. Farrell), 226

Smith, C., and J. Serrati (Eds), Sicily from Aeneas to Augustus. New Approaches in Archaeology and History (by J. Prag), 202

Stapleton, M. L., Thomas Heywood’s Art of Love: the First Complete English Translation of Ovid’s Ars Amatoria (by G. Liveley), 247

Taplin, O. (Ed.), Literature in the Greek and Roman Worlds: a New Perspective (by M. Brady), 225

Vagi, D. L., Coinage and History of the Roman Empire (by K. Sugden), 216

Walker, J., Rhetoric and Poetics in Antiquity (by T. Hill), 225

Watson, A., Aurelian and the Third Century (by J. F. Drinkwater), 261

Wright, G. R. H., Ancient Building Technology. Volume I. Historical Background (by G. W. Houston), 212

Yakobson, A., Elections and Electioneering in Rome. A Study in the Political System of the Late Republic (by J. Paterson), 229

Young, G. K., Rome’s Eastern Trade. International Commerce and Imperial Policy 31 BC–AD 305 (by C. Adams), 234

Zamarchi Grassi, P. (Ed.), Castiglion Fiorentino. Un nuovo centro etrusco (by V. Izzet), 208




Andrew Wilson:  Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy

This paper examines the relationship between the design and use of mechanical technology, patronage and investment, and economic return, using three main case studies: water-lifting devices, the water-powered grain mill, and the diverse uses of water-power in mining. Water-power was used on a wide scale and in diversified forms at an early date (by the first century A.D.), and the use of mechanical technology to perform economically critical work had an important impact on economic performance and the potential for per capita growth, especially in the latter centuries B.C. and the first two centuries A.D. Conversely, in the third century A.D. the cessation of the employment of hydraulic mining techniques enabling large-scale extraction of gold and other metals may have had an adverse impact on the economy as a whole. Growth and progress do not necessarily follow a linear pattern of advance; technologies are lost as well as adopted.


Michael Koortbojian:  A Painted Exemplum at Rome's Temple of Liberty

Livy attests, with an unusual anecdote, a painting commissioned for Rome's Temple of Liberty. The subject matter of the image -- the festivities following a victory in 214 B.C. -- is to be understood an an exemplum, and the picture's display in the temple as a political act. The possible appearance of such a painting is discussed, what such an image might have meant to Romans of the late third century is examined, and how its unusual subject matter related to what we can reconstruct of mid-Republican imagery is established.


Mary Jaeger:  Cicero and Archimedes' Tomb

While arguing that virtue suffices for happiness Cicero invokes Archimedes as an exemplum of the happiness of the life of inquiry in contrast to the misery of the tyrant Dionysius (Tusculan Disputations 5.64-6). Yet the anecdote that follows reports Cicero's discovery of the mathematician's neglected tomb and draws attention to his own active curiosity. Thus it brings together Cicero and Archimedes, two men whose lives combine theoretical and practical accomplishments. Casting himself as Archimedes' heir, who preserves and renews the intellectual heritage of the Greeks, Cicero, the Roman statesman-philosopher makes the anecdote emblematic of his own endeavour. 


Ruth Morello:  Livy's Alexander Digression (9.17-19): Counterfactuals and Apologetics

This article offers a new reading of Livy's Alexander digression (9.17-19) and demonstrates that its allusions both to Livy's own work and to key debates of Sallustian and Catonian historiography centre upon a major historical/historiographical question: the place of 'unus homo' in res publica and in res gestae. Livy assesses the problematic status of the Great Man against the background of a eulogizing survey of Republican tradition, in which no one man is ever indispensable or unique, and asserts that the figure of the 'unushomo' is dangerous for his state not only because of the risk of tyranny but also because of the unhealthy dependency of the state upon one short-lived mortal. Consequently, this article suggests, our understanding of Livy’s view of Augustus should be revised in the light of his pluralizing and anti-monarchical digression.


John Moles:  Reconstructing Plancus (Horace, C. 1.7)

The Teucer myth has triple relevance -- to the death of Plancus' brother; to Plancus' desertion of Antony; and to a rich analogy between Plancus and Virgil's Aeneas. Plancus is praised for his change of allegiance and for heroically surmounting his disreputable Antonian past; these implications are topical in 23 B.C., a year of crisis in which the ex-Antonian Plancus was censor-designate; but there is another, personal, level on which Horace celebrates the survival of Plancus and himself from the storms of civil war and also advocates repeated symposiastic relief from inevitable future troubles. Finally, it is hypothesized that Horace deftly alludes to Plancus' hypothetical second marriage.


John Henderson:  Columella's Living Hedge: the Roman Gardening Book

This essay places Columella's two treatments of gardening within (i) the overall economy of his farm and (ii) the organization of his text on farming. The surprise treatment of the garden in a book of verse (10) is compounded by its reprise in a supplementary book on the farming calendar (11: ch. 3). After an apparently final table of contents (to end Book 11), a further study takes the reader inside the farm-house, to receive, process, preserve, and store Columella's produce (12). The lay-out of De re rustica shapes on-going instruction in the logic and dynamics of farming, laying special emphasis on what makes the garden a site that calls for exceptional treatment. The rapture of Book 10 is aptly set off against the painstaking expertise that rules the rest of the farming prose.


R. R. R. Smith:  The Statue Monument of Oecumenius: a New Portrait of a Late Antique Governor from Aphrodisias

The article is the first publication of a new late antique portrait from Aphrodisias in Caria that has a statue body, an inscribed base, and a precise ancient setting. It was set up in honour of a provincial governor named Oecumenius, and his chlamydatus statue is now the most complete and best documented example around which others of this characteristic type of late antique statue can be understood. The monument also has wider connections outside Aphrodisias and raises interesting problems of historical interpretation in the period around A.D. 400.


Danuta Shanzer:  Avulsa a Latere Meo: Augustine's Spare Rib -- Confessions 6.15.25

A literary and historical re-examination of Confessions 6.15.25, Augustine's separation from his anonymous first concubine, suggesting studied evocation of Genesis 2.21-24, the creation of Eve. It argues that in De Bono coniugali 5 Augustine spoke of both his relationships, not just the first. The evasive (and often quasi-mendacious) sexual narrative of the Confessions is re-examined. Augustine regarded his concubinage as a virtual marriage, and customary assumptions about Anonyma 1's status and about ingenuae entering concubinages may require revision. So too the chronology of the relationship. Augustine's intellectual struggle with the definition of marriage (Roman, Christian, and Old Testament) is outlined as well as his unhappy awareness of secular legalities, submission to society, cowardly equivocation, and homage to a lost love.