(journal published in November 2003 and despatched in December) 



Tonio Hölscher:  Images of War in Greece and Rome: Between Military Practice, Public Memory, and Cultural Symbolism, 1-17

W. V. Harris:  Roman Opinions about the Truthfulness of Dreams, 18-34

I. A. Ruffell:  Beyond Satire: Horace, Popular Invective and the Segregation of Literature, 35-65

Llewelyn Morgan:  Child's Play: Ovid and his Critics, 66-91

Miriam Griffin:  De Beneficiis and Roman Society, 92-113

Jas Elsner:  Archaeologies and Agendas: Reflections on Late Ancient Jewish Art and Early Christian Art, 114-28

Julia Hillner:  Domus, Family and Inheritance: the Senatorial Family House in Late Antique Rome, 129-45



Simon Keay:  Recent Archaeological Work in Roman Iberia (1990-2002), 146-211

Richard Gordon with Joyce Reynolds:  Roman Inscriptions 1995-2000, 212-94



Eleanor Dickey:  Ancient Bilingualism (reviews J. N. Adams, Bilingualism and the Latin Language; J. N. Adams, M. Janse and S. Swain (eds), Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Text), 295-302


REVIEWS (in alphabetical order)

Alston, R., The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt (by N. Morley), 311-12

Anderson, G., Fairytale in the Ancient World (by J. R. Morgan), 344

As'ad, K., and J.-B. Yon, with T. Fournet, Inscriptions de Palmyre. Promenades épigraphiques dans la ville antique de Palmyre (by T. Kaizer), 327

Bagordo, A., Beobachtungen zur Sprache des Terenz: mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der umgangssprachlichen Elemente (by B. Dunsch), 357-8

Barchiesi, A., Speaking Volumes. Narrative and Intertext in Ovid and other Latin Poets (by P. Hardie), 376-7

Barsby, J. (Ed.), Terence I. Woman of Andros, Self-Tormentor, Eunuch (by S. M. Goldberg), 358

Barsby, J. (Ed.), Terence II. Phormio, The Mother-In-Law, The Brothers (by S. M. Goldberg), 358

Beard, M., and J. Henderson, Classical Art from Greece to Rome (by Z. Newby), 317-19

Beck, H., and U. Walter, Die frühen römischen Historiker. I. Von Fabius Pictor bis Cn. Gellius (by J. Briscoe),355

Belayche, N., Iudaea-Palaestina (by J. Kirkpatrick), 418-19

Bettini, M., Classical Indiscretions: a Millennial Enquiry into the State of Classics (by M. Leonard), 349

Birley, A. R., Onomasticon to the Younger Pliny: Letters and Panegyric (by I. Marchesi), 389-90

Borca, F., Terra mari cincta. Insularità e cultura romana (by G. Bradley), 312

Boyd, B. W. (Ed.), Brill's Companion to Ovid (by N. Holzberg), 374-6

Brandt, J. R., and O. Steen, Imperial Art as Christian Art – Christian Art as Imperial Art (by J. Elsner), 408

Brodersen, K. (Ed.), Virtuelle Antike: Wendepunkte der alten Geschichte (by R. Morello), 343-4

Brown, P. R. L., Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire (by G. Osborn), 414-15

Butler, S., The Hand of Cicero (by M. Griffin), 364-5

Caner, D., Wandering, Begging Monks: Spiritual Authority and the Promotion of Monasticism in Late Antiquity (by A. Hartney), 417

Capasso, L., I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: paleobiologia delle vittime dell'eruzione Vesuviana del 79 D.C. (by M. J. Becker), 404-6

Cavarzere, A., A. Aloni, and A. Barchiesi (Eds), Iambic Ideas: Essays on a Poetic Tradition from Archaic Greece to the Late Roman Empire (by A. D. Morrison), 340-1

Clausen, W., Virgil's Aeneid: Decorum, Allusion, and Ideology (by S. Casali), 368-70

Clauss, M., The Roman Cult of Mithras: the God and his Mysteries (by C. Beall), 314

Cucchiarelli, A., La satira e il poeta. Orazio tra epodi e sermones (by E. Gowers), 370

Cuomo, S., Ancient Mathematics (by K. Tybjerg), 324-5

Cuomo, S., Pappus of Alexandria and the Mathematics of Late Antiquity (by E. Robertson), 420-21

Dangel, J. (Ed.), Le Poète architecte: arts métriques et art poétique latins (by J. Diggle), 332-3

David, J.-M., La République romaine de la deuxième guerre punique à la bataille d'Actium 218-31: crise d'une aristocratie (by A. Keaveney), 367-8

Davies, G., A. Gardner and K. Lockyear (Eds), Trac 2000: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Archaeological Conference London 2000 (by R. Hingley), 322-23

Degeorge, G., Palmyre, métropole caravanière (by T. Kaizer), 327

Delbey, E., Poétique de l'élégie romaine. Les âges cicéronien et augustéen (by R. Armstrong), 370-1

Depew, M., and D. Obbink (Eds), Matrices of Genre: Authors, Canons, and Society (by D. Feeney), 337-9

Descœudres, J.-P. (Ed.), Ostia, port et porte de la Rome antique. Catalogue of the Exhibition held 23 February-22 July 2001, Musée Rath, Geneva (by A. Claridge), 321-2

Dickey, E., Latin Forms of Address from Plautus to Apuleius (by J. T. Katz), 333-4

Dixon, S., Reading Roman Women: Sources, Genres and Real Life (by B. F. McManus), 308-9

Effe, B., and R. F. Glei (Eds), Genie und Wahnsinn. Konzepte psychischer ‘Normalität’ und ‘Abnormalität’ im Altertum (by F. Stok), 325-6

Enenkel, K., J. L. de Jong, and J. de Landtsheer (Eds), Recreating Ancient History: Episodes from the Greek and Roman Past in the Arts and Literature of the Early Modern Period (by I. Macgregor Morris), 348

Ensoli, S., and E. La Rocca (Eds), Aurea Roma: dalla città pagana alla città cristiana (by J. Elsner), 407-8

Erskine, A., Troy between Greece and Rome. Local Tradition and Imperial Power (by A. J. S. Spawforth), 326

Evans, J. A. S., The Empress Theodora: Partner of Justinian (by F. Haarer), 412-13

Farrell, J., Latin Language and Latin Culture, from Ancient to Modern Times (by P. Hardie), 331-2

France, J., Quadragesima Galliarum: l'organisation douanière des provinces alpestres, gauloises et germaniques de l'empire romain (by M. Cottier), 398-9

Fraschetti, A. (Ed.), Roman Women (by R. Langlands), 309-10

Friesen, S. J., Imperial Cults and the Apocalypse of John: Reading Revelation in the Ruins (by P. Oakes), 401-2

Gagos, T., and R. S. Bagnall (Eds), Essays and Texts in Honor of J. David Thomas (by W. E. H. Cockle), 350-1

Gärtner, U., and E. Stärk (Eds), Th. Ladewig, Schriften zum römischen Drama republikanischer Zeit (by C. Panayotakis), 356

Greca, F. La, Fonti letterarie greche e latine per la storia della Lucania Tirrenica (by C. S. Mackay), 312-13

Gruen, E., Diaspora: Jews amidst Greeks and Romans (by D. Noy), 330-1

Hardie, P., Ovid's Poetics of Illusion (by A. Feldherr), 373-4

Hardie, P. (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ovid (by N. Holzberg), 374-6

Harrison, S. J. (Ed.), Apuleius Rhetorical Works (by E. Finkelpearl), 394-5

Haynes, S., Etruscan Civilization. A Cultural History (by V. Izzet), 315-16

Hekster, O., Commodus: an Emperor at the Crossroads (by H. Elton), 397

Herbert-Brown, G. (Ed.), Ovid's Fasti. Historical Readings at its Bimillennium (by C. R. Phillips III), 382-3

Herrera Zapién, T., Historia del Humanismo Mexicano: sus textos y contextos neolatinos en cinco siglos (by A. Laird), 345-7

Higgins, A., Constructing the Criollo Archive: Subjects of Knowledge in the Biblioteca Mexicana and the Rusticatio Mexicana (by A. Laird), 345-7

Hollenburger-Rusch, C., Liquitur in Lacrimas. Zur Verwendung des Tränenmotivs in den Metamorphosen Ovids (by K. Herrmann), 379-80

Holman, S. R., The Hungry Are Dying, Beggars and Bishops in Roman Cappadocia (by R. Toporoski), 413-14

Holzberg, N., Catull: der Dichter und sein erotisches Werk (by D. Konstan), 358-9

Holzberg, N., Die römische Liebeselegie: eine Einfuhrung (by J. B. DeBrohun), 371-2

Jolivet, J.-C., Allusion et fiction épistolaire dans les Héroïdes: recherches sur l'intertextualité ovidienne (by L. Fulkerson), 383-4

Jouteur, I., Jeux de genre dans les Metamorphoses d'Ovide (by P. Salzman-Mitchell), 377-8

Keay, S., and N. Terrenato (Eds), Italy and the West: Comparative Issues in Romanization (by E. Dench), 327-9

Keulen, A. J., L. Annaeus Seneca Troades, Introduction, Text and Commentary (by H. M. Hine), 386-7

Kolb, F., Herrscherideologie in der Spätantike (by G. Kelly), 416-17

Kraus, C. S. (Ed.), The Limits of Historiography. Genre and Narrative in Ancient Historical Texts (by A. M. Gowing), 342-3

Kroppenberg, I., Die Insolvenz im klassischen römischen Recht. Tatbestände und Wirkungen ausserhalb des Konkursverfahrens (by T. Rüfner), 305-6

Krostenko, B. A., Cicero, Catullus, and the Language of Social Performance (by E. Theodorakopoulos), 359-61

Kuefler, M., The Manly Eunuch: Masculinity, Gender Ambiguity, and Christian Ideology in Late Antiquity (by C. Leyser), 415-16

Laird, A., Powers of Expression, Expressions of Power (by A. D. Morrison), 336-7

Lamberton, R., Plutarch (by A. V. Zadorojnyi), 392-4

Lewis, M. J. T., Surveying Instruments of Greece and Rome (by K. Greene), 323-4

Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G., Decline and Fall of the Roman City (by R. Alston), 406-7

Lovano, M., The Age of Cinna: Crucible of Late Republican Rome (by B. M. Levick), 361-2

Lyne, R., Ovid's Changing Worlds: English Metamorphoses, 1567-1632 (by L. Gillespie Cahoon), 380-2

Maas, M., Readings in Late Antiquity: a Sourcebook (by G. Kelly), 408-9

Michalopoulos, A., Ancient Etymologies in Ovid's Metamorphoses: a Commented Lexicon (by B. Pavlock), 378-9

Millar, F., Rome, the Greek World and the East, Vol. I: the Roman Republic and the Augustan Revolution (by T. J. Cornell), 351-4

Millar, F., The Roman Republic in Political Thought (by T. J. Cornell), 351-4

Morton Braund, S., Latin Literature (by S. J. Harrison), 335-6

Mouritsen, H., Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (by G. Burton), 367

Mueller, H.-F., Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (by J. Davies), 400

Müller-Wetzel, M., Der lateinische Konjunktiv. Seine Einheit als deiktische Kategorie. Eine Erklärung der modalen Systeme der klassischen Zeit (by E. Rieken), 334-5

Narducci, E. (Ed.), Cicerone Prospettiva 2000. Atti del I Symposium Ciceronianum Arpinas. Arpino 5 Maggio 2000 (by V. Arena), 365-6

Narducci, E. (Ed.), Interpretare Cicerone. Percorsi della critica contemporanea. Atti del II Symposium Ciceronianum Arpinas. Arpino 18 Maggio 2001 (by V. Arena), 365-6

Narducci, E., Lucano. Un'epica contro l'impero (by M. Leigh), 385-6

Nauta, R. R., Poetry for Patrons. Literary Communication in the Age of Domitian (by R. Rees), 388-9

Nelis, D., Vergil's Aeneid and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius (by S. Casali), 368-70

Noordraven, B., Die Fiduzia im römischen Recht (by T. Rüfner), 305-6

Olsson, B., D. Mitternacht and O. Brandt (Eds), The Synagogue of Ancient Ostia and the Jews of Rome (by S. Sorek), 331

Oppermann, I., Zur Funktion historischer Beispiele in Ciceros Briefen (by C. E. W. Steel), 365

Padgett, J. M., Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum, Princeton University (by F. S. Kleiner), 320-1

Papi, E., L'Etruria dei Romani. Opere pubbliche e donazioni private in età imperiale (by P. Perkins), 403-4

Pelling, C., Plutarch and History: Eighteen Studies (by A. V. Zadorojnyi), 392-4

Perring, D., The Roman House in Britain (by J. Percival), 310-11

Rajak, T., The Jewish Dialogue with Greece and Rome: Studies in Cultural and Social Interaction (by M. H. Williams), 329-30

Rees, R., Layers of Loyalty in Latin Panegyric AD 289-307 (by J. Vanderspoel), 409-10

Renucci, P., Les idées politiques et le gouvernement de l'empereur Julien (by S. Tougher), 410-11

Roller, M. B., Constructing Autocracy: Aristocrats and Emperors in Julio-Claudian Rome (by R. Ash), 395-6

Rowe, G., Princes and Political Cultures: the New Tiberian Senatorial Decrees (by N. T. Elkins), 396-7

Rüpke, J. (Ed.), Von Göttern und Menschen Erzählen: Formkonstanzen und Funktionswandel vormoderner Epik (by H. Lovatt), 341-2

Sauron, G., L'histoire végétalisée: ornement et politique à Rome (by V. Platt), 402-3

Schäfer, P. (Ed.), The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman Culture (by S. Stern), 419-20

Scheidel, W. (Ed.), Debating Roman Demography (by E. J. Owens), 303-4

Schnegg-Köhler, B., Die augusteischen Säkularspiele (by A. E. Cooley), 399-400

Schulze, C., Celsus (by F. Stok), 384-5

Segal, E. (Ed.), Oxford Readings in Menander, Plautus, and Terence (by R. May), 356-7

Shaw, B. D., Spartacus and the Slave Wars: a Brief History with Documents (by T. Urbainczyk), 304-5

Skoie, M., Reading Sulpicia. Commentaries 1475-1990 (by G. Liveley), 372-3

Späth, T., and B. Wagner-Hasel (Eds), Frauenwelten in der Antike, Geschlechterordnung und weibliche Lebenspraxis (by H. G. Ziche), 307-8

Stärk, E., and G. Vogt-Spira (Eds), Dramatische Wäldchen: Festschrift für Eckard Lefèvre zum 65 Geburtstag (by E. O'Kell), 339-40

Steel, C. E. W., Cicero, Rhetoric, and Empire (by J. P. Johnson), 363-4

Tacitus, Annals V and VI. Ed. R. Martin (by D. H. Berry), 391-2

Tacitus, Dialogvs De Oratoribvs. Ed. R. Mayer (by D. H. Berry), 390-1

Torelli, M. (Ed.), The Etruscans (by R. Leighton), 316-17

Vaahtera, J., Roman Augural Lore in Greek Historiography. A Study of the Theory and Terminology (by A. Nice), 313-14

Valantasis, R. (Ed.), Religions of Late Antiquity in Practice (by J. Davies), 418

Varner, E. R. (Ed.), From Caligula to Constantine. Tyranny and Transformation in Roman Portraiture (by P. Milnes-Smith), 319

Varone, A., Erotica Pompeiana. Love Inscriptions on the Walls of Pompeii (by S. Hales), 404

Versluys, M. J., Aegyptiaca Romana: Nilotic Scenes and the Roman Views of Egypt (by J. Elsner), 319-20

Vigourt, A., Les Présages impériaux d'Auguste à Domitien (by O. Hekster), 400-1

Vons, J., L'image de la femme dans l'oeuvre de Pline l'ancien (by A. Doody), 387-8

Walsh, P. G. (Ed.), Augustine. De Bono Coniugali. De Sancta Virginitate (by P. Burton), 411-12

Wray, D., Catullus and the Poetics of Roman Manhood (by E. Theodorakopoulos), 359-61

Wycislo, W. E., Seneca's Epistolary Responsum: the De Ira as Parody (by B. Cowan), 387

Wyke, M., The Roman Mistress. Ancient and Modern Representations (by A. M. Keith), 344-5

Zecchini, G., Cesare e il Mos Maiorum (by C. Smith), 362-3



Tonio Hölscher:  Images of War in Greece and Rome: Between Military Practice, Public Memory, and Cultural Symbolism


War as a subject of cultural studies is not only a matter of practical warfare but implies basic ideological, psychological, and anthropological concepts. In this essay images of war are interpreted not as reproductions of historical reality but as constructions of specific concepts of war through the medium of the visual arts: the activity of fighting, the warrior's body, the image of enemies, killing and subduing, ritual performance and monumental commemoration. The aim is a comparative view of war in various phases of Classical Antiquity, from Archaic Greece to Imperial Rome, in order to sharpen the eye for the specific differences between the various ancient societies and thereby to bring the Roman concepts into focus.


W. V. Harris:  Roman Opinions about the Truthfulness of Dreams


Did the Romans believe that dreams commonly told the truth about the future? The answer depends in part on what is meant by 'belief' and 'truth'. In particular, dreams were often considered veridical if they were simply auspicious. Many texts are considered, and it is suggested that, at least among the educated, prevailing ideas may have varied from period to period (this paper extends only as far as Severan times). Finally the question arises as to who had an interest in validating predictive dreams.


I. A. Ruffell:  Beyond Satire: Horace, Popular Invective and the Segregation of Literature


This paper situates Horace's construction of satire and the satiric poet against contemporary traditions of verse invective. It argues that the form, context, and performance of such 'subliterary' verse was richer and more complex than is usually suggested, exploring its potential as a vehicle for the expression of genuine popular dissent. In its blurring of hierarchies and insistent political engagement, invective poetry is presented as a potentially troublesome package at a time of social and political crisis and change. Horace's response attempts to police literary and social boundaries, constructing a poetry that knows its place in an emerging world order.


Llewelyn Morgan:  Child's Play: Ovid and his Critics


This article approaches Ovid's Metamorphoses through the relatively copious (and generally negative) criticism which it provoked in the century after its composition. A recurrent motif of this criticism is its characterization of the ethos of the poem, and by extension of Ovid himself, as childish, and it is shown that in this respect as in others Ovid's poem anticipates its own scholarly reception, repeatedly featuring children disrupting adult (and particularly paternal) attempts to assert the 'orthodox' epic values of authority and order. In Cupid, Phaethon, and Icarus it is easy to see reflected Ovid's own irresponsible poetics, and the article ends with some consideration of the relation of Ovid's epic to Augustan ideology, with its promotion of paternal authority as a model for Augustus' role in the state.


Miriam Griffin:  De Beneficiis and Roman Society


The sole survivor of many post-Aristotelian works specifically devoted to this subject, Seneca's long treatise has close affinities with analyses of gift-exchange made by social anthropologists. The network of horizontal relationships created by conferring favours, which he depicts, was a shared social ideal in Roman high society, fully attested by less theoretical writers. It was continuous with the aristocratic code of the Republic, but was now applied to the Princeps in his relations with his nominal peers. By grounding the code in a metaphysical theory of man and the universe, Seneca reinforced it in its most demanding form.


Jas Elsner:  Archaeologies and Agendas: Reflections on Late Ancient Jewish Art and Early Christian Art


This paper explores the grounds for creating the generalizations of 'Late Ancient Jewish Art' and 'Early Christian Art' as real categories of visual production in Late Antiquity. It asks what would be the effect if we thought of 'Jewish' and 'Christian' art as religious categories like Mithraic art, and not as areas akin to (say) 'Greek' and 'Egyptian' art. What happens to the history of the religious arts of the Roman Empire if we align their study with recent approaches to Mediterranean religions between the first and fourth centuries A.D.? The paper reviews both the archaeological evidence and the history of its analysis to conclude that many commonly repeated assumptions are founded on little more than a long scholarly tradition operating in the absence of critical empiricism.


Julia Hillner:  Domus, Family and Inheritance: the Senatorial Family House in Late Antique Rome


This article offers a new understanding of the concept of the 'ancestral residence' in the late antique city of Rome. It argues that the nature of the transmission of residences was bifold: real and ideal. As legal sources show, senatorial families were guided in their inheritance strategies more by pragmatism than by an attempt to keep houses inside the male family line. Yet, many senators tried to stress the potential of their houses as symbols of family continuity by inventing a memory of their ancestors' ownership, through the medium of epigraphy. With this, senators could both gain prestige as members of a wider, albeit often fictional, gens, and define their houses as landmarks of urban social life.


Simon Keay:  Recent Archaeological Work in Roman Iberia (1990-2002)


This survey article reviews developments in the archaeology of Roman Spain and Portugal for the period between the late third century B.C. and the late fifth century A.D., published between 1990 and 2002. It aims to compare and contrast the regional trends within the provinces as far as possible, in order to bring out the full cultural richness of the peninsula. The intensity of research across the peninsula varies, with some areas of Tarraconensis being better understood than others, and some provinces, like Baetica, needing more sustained archaeological research. While there have been important advances in our understanding throughout the period of the Roman presence in Iberia, the Republican period emerges as the period of study with greatest potential for future research.