W. V. Harris:  A Revisionist View of Roman Money, 1-24

Philip Hardie:  Virgil’s Ptolemaic Relations, 25-41

Harry M. Hine:  Rome, the Cosmos, and the Emperor in Seneca’s Natural Questions, 42-72

Stanley E. Hoffer:  Divine Comedy? Accession Propaganda in Pliny, Epistles 10.1-2 and the Panegyric, 73-87

Robert Witcher:  Settlement and Society in Early Imperial Etruria, 88-123

G. D. Williams:  Greco-Roman Seismology and Seneca on Earthquakes in Natural Questions 6, 124-146

Francisco Beltrán Lloris:  An Irrigation Decree from Roman Spain: The Lex Rivi Hiberiensis, 147-197



R. J. A. Wilson:  What’s New in Roman Baden-Württemberg? (Archäologischen Landesmuseum Baden-Württemberg (Ed.), Imperium Romanum. Roms Provinzen an Neckar, Rhein und Donau; Badischen Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.), Imperium Romanum. Römer, Christen, Alamannen — Die Spätantike am Oberrhein; D. Planck (Ed.), Die Römer in Baden-Württemberg. Romerstatten und Museen von Aalen bis Zweifalten), 198-212


REVIEWS (in alphabetical order)


Armstrong, D., J. Fish, P. A. Johnston and M. B. Skinner (Eds), Vergil, Philodemus, and the Augustans (by P. Hardie), 253-254

Beck, H., and Walter, U., Die frühen römischen Historiker. 2. Von Coelius Antipater bis Pomponius Atticus (by S. J. Northwood), 243

Bowen, A., and P. Garnsey, Lactantius: Divine Institutes (by O. Nicholson), 307-309

Brandt, J. R., O. Steen, S. Sande and L. Hodne (Eds), Rome AD 300–800: Power and Symbol — Image and Reality (by D. Potter), 309-310

Bussi, S., Economia e demografia della schiavitù in Asia Minore ellenistico-romana (by T. Urbainczyk), 228

Butcher, K., Coinage in Roman Syria. Northern Syria, 64 BC–AD 253 (by W. E. Metcalf), 232-233

Camporeale, G. (Ed.), The Etruscans outside Etruria (by T. Rasmussen), 288-290

Cascianelli, M., La Tomba Giulimondi di Cerveteri (by C. Roth-Murray), 282-284

Cerchiai Manodori Sagredo, C., Cibi e banchetti nell’antica Roma (by C. Smith), 233

Champlin, E., Nero (by C. Connors), 230-231

Clark, G., Christianity and Roman Society (by B. Longenecker), 297-298

Cotta Ramosino, L., Plinio il Vecchio e la tradizione storica di Roma nella Naturalis Historia (by R. Ash), 261-262

Dall’Aglio, P. L., and I. di Cocco (Eds), Pesaro Romana: archeologia e urbanistica (by N. Christie), 286-287

Davies, J. P., Rome’s Religious History. Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (by A. Nice), 248-249

De Blois, L., P. Erdkamp, O. Hekster, G. De Kleijn and S. Mols, The Representation and Perception of Roman Imperial Power. Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Roman Empire, c. 200 B.C.–A.D. 476). Netherlands Institute in Rome March 20–23, 2002 (by D. Potter), 226-227

Demandt, A., A. Goltz and H. Schlange-Schöningen (Eds), Diokletian und die Tetrarchie: Aspekte einer Zeitenwende (by W. Leadbetter), 310-312

De Sena, E. C., and H. Dessales (Eds), Metodi e approcci archeologici: l’industria e il commercio nell’Italia antica. Archaeological Methods and Approaches: Industry and Commerce in Ancient Italy (by E. Herring), 291-293

Digeser, E. D., The Making of a Christian Empire: Lactantius and Rome (by O. Nicholson), 307-309

Dox, D., The Idea of the Theater in Latin Christian Thought: Augustine to the Fourteenth Century (by I. Gildenhard), 272-273

Dugan, J., Making a New Man: Ciceronian Self-fashioning in the Rhetorical Works (by E. Gunderson), 246-248

Eck, W., Köln in römischer Zeit. Geschichte einer Stadt im Rahmen des Imperium Romanum (by K. Brodersen), 231-232

Ellis, L., and F. L. Kidner (Eds), Travel, Communication and Geography in Late Antiquity: Sacred and Profane (by L. Grig), 301-302

Erasmo, M., Roman Tragedy: Theatre to Theatricality (by I. Gildenhard), 272-273

Forsythe, G., A Critical History of Early Rome from Prehistory to the First Punic War (by C. Smith), 222-224

Freudenburg, K. (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Roman Satire (by C. Keane), 265-267

Fulminante, F., Le‘sepolture principesche’ nel Latium Vetus tra la fine della prima éta del ferro e l’inizio dell’éta orientalizzante (by C. Smith), 281-282

Gale, M. (Ed.), Latin Epic and Didactic Poetry: Genre, Tradition and Individuality (by H. Lovatt), 255-257

Gärtner, U., Quintus Smyrnaeus und die Aeneis: zur Nachwirkung Vergils in der griechischen Literatur der Kaiserzeit (by H. Lovatt), 255-257

Ghedini, F., I. Colpo and M. Novello, Le Immagini di Filostrato Minore: la prospettiva della storico dell’arte (by J. Elsner), 293

Goff, B. (Ed.), Classics and Colonialism (by M. Bradley), 213-214

Grainger, J. D., The Roman War of Antiochos the Great (by J. B. Scholten), 219-221

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Grig, L., Making Martyrs in Late Antiquity (by K. Cooper), 300-301

Guillaumin, J.-Y., and S. Ratti (Eds), Autour de Lactance: Hommages à Pierre Monat (by O. Nicholson), 307-309

Habinek, T., The World of Roman Song: from Ritualized Speech to Social Order (by D. Feeney and J. T. Katz), 240-242

Hall, L. J., Roman Berytus: Beirut in Late Antiquity (by S. K. Ross), 312-314

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Heiken, G., R. Funiciello and D. de Rita, The Seven Hills of Rome: a Geological Tour of the Eternal City (by M. Anderson), 279-281

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MacMahon, A., and J. Price (Eds), Roman Working Lives and Urban Living (by A. Gardner), 233-234

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Steel, C., Reading Cicero: Genre and Performance in Late Republican Rome (by R. Morstein-Marx), 245-246

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Williamson, C., The Laws of the Roman People: Public Law in the Expansion and Decline of the Roman Republic (by A. Lintott), 224-226

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W. V. Harris:  A Revisionist View of Roman Money


The consensus view that all Roman money consisted of coins has been undermined in recent times and should be discarded. The inhabitants of the Roman Empire frequently and on a significant scale made payments by means of credit-money, creating a ‘multiplier effect’, which meant that in high classical times the Roman economy was not constricted, as is often supposed, by an inelastic money-supply. Yet the monetary system was not modern; rather it had its counterparts in such economies as those of seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Britain.



Philip Hardie:  Virgil’s Ptolemaic Relations


An allusive plot of an incestuous brother-sister marriage runs through Virgil’s story of Dido and Aeneas, signalled both by imagery comparing Dido and Aeneas to Diana and Apollo, moon and sun, and by allusion to Callimachean poems celebrating actual brother-sister marriages at the Ptolemaic court. Aeneas’ departure from Carthage marks the relegation to the past of Alexandrian temptations and a journey to a future foundation based on exogamy, although Italy itself is not free from the dangers of incest and fratricide. Ovid’s explicit tales of incest comment on Virgil’s allusive narrative.



Harry M. Hine:  Rome, the Cosmos, and the Emperor in Seneca’s Natural Questions


This paper examines the political content and context of Seneca’s Natural Questions. It argues that, on the one hand, Rome is marginalized in the context of the immensity of the cosmos; and philosophy is elevated above traditional Roman pursuits, including political activity and historical writing. But at the same time the work is firmly anchored in its Roman geo-political context; Seneca situates himself in a long and continuing tradition of investigation of the natural world, where Roman writers can stand alongside Greeks and others; and the current emperor Nero is presented not just as princeps and poet, but as sponsor of geographical and scientific investigation.



Stanley E. Hoffer: Divine Comedy? Accession Propaganda in Pliny, Epistles 10.1–2 and the Panegyric


This article investigates the use, in Pliny’s official writings of imperial praise, of the theme of ‘divine comedy’ – the idea that everything is for the best in the imperial world under the ideal emperor. An examination of this prominent theme can help us understand how Pliny handled the inevitable tensions in an imperial ideology which was grounded in the opposing figures of the ‘good’ emperor who deserved deification, and the ‘bad’ emperor who deserved tyrannicide.



Robert Witcher:  Settlement and Society in Early Imperial Etruria


This paper compares the early imperial period results from thirty surveys in and around regio VII Etruria in order to identify similarities and differences of settlement, population, and economy. Three sub-regional patterns are defined: the suburbium, coastal Etruria, and inland Etruria. Consideration of methodological issues of survey comparison suggests the problem is real, but not insuperable. A range of interpretative models is discussed with particular reference to the impact of the Urbs on economic, agricultural, and social developments. The structural connections between these sub-regions are emphasized, particularly the organization of labour, demography, and agricultural strategies. The results reveal varied responses to Roman control, leading to more not less diversity. More generally, the results underline the value of comparing regional survey data.



G. D. Williams:  Greco-Roman Seismology and Seneca on Earthquakes in Natural Questions 6


This paper seeks to locate Seneca’s treatment of earthquakes in Natural Questions 6 in the broader ancient seismological tradition; and, more particularly, to examine the initiatives which potentially transform his treatment into a highly original mode of literary-philosophical investigation not just into the cause of earthquakes, but also of how a ‘scientific’ understanding of them can at least partially quell the intimidating effect of such wonders of nature. On this approach Natural Questions 6 is perhaps concerned not so much with earthquakes per se but with shaping attitudes towards the natural world as a whole, inculcating in us a vision of such phenomena as but ‘normal’ aspects of cosmic functioning. By this method the book promotes within us a different, engagingly Senecan appreciation of cosmic integrity.



Francisco Beltrán Lloris:  An Irrigation Decree from Roman Spain: the Lex Rivi Hiberiensis


The article presents an edition of and commentary on a Latin bronze inscription (152 lines long) from the time of Hadrian, found at Agón, near Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza), in ancient Hispania Citerior. The inscription contains a set of regulations (lex riui Hiberiensis) governing an irrigation community consisting of rural districts (pagi) from two different cities (Caesaraugusta and Cascantum) which shared a canal, the riuus Hiberiensis. The lex was produced in accordance with an agreement of the pagani after the intervention of the provincial governor [--- Fun]ndanus Augustanus Alpinus. It provides information about the pagus institutions (magistri pagi, concilium, curatores, publicani?) as well as procedural aspects such as iusiurandum, uadimonium, and judicial formulae.