THE JOURNAL OF ROMAN STUDIES

VOLUME XCVII 2007

 

CONTENTS

ARTICLES

Peter Heslin:  Augustus, Domitian and the So-called Horologium Augusti, 1-20

Sabine R. Huebner:  ‘Brother-Sister’ Marriage in Roman Egypt: a Curiosity of Humankind or a Widespread Family Strategy?, 21-49

Andrew B. Gallia:  Reassessing the ‘Cumaean Chronicle’: Greek Chronology and Roman History in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 50-67

Jonathan R. W. Prag:  Auxilia and Gymnasia: A Sicilian Model of Roman Imperialism, 68-100

T. V. Buttrey:  Domitian, the Rhinoceros, and the Date of Martial’s Liber De Spectaculis, 101-112

Stephen Hinds:  Martial’s Ovid / Ovid’s Martial, 113-154

Cam Grey:  Contextualizing Colonatus: The Origo of the Late Roman Empire, 155-175

 

SURVEY ARTICLE

Alison E. Cooley, Stephen Mitchell and Benet Salway:  Roman Inscriptions 2001–2005, 176-262

 

REVIEWS (in alphabetical order)

Attema, P. (Ed.), Centralization, Early Urbanization and Colonization in First Millennium BC Italy and Greece. Part 1: Italy (by P. van Dommelen), 348-349

Baier, T., G. Manuwald and B. Zimmermann (Eds), Seneca: Philosophus et Magister. Festschrift für Eckard Lefèvre zum 70 Geburtstag (by H. M. Hine), 321-322

Beagon, M. (Ed.), The Elder Pliny on the Human Animal, Natural History, Book 7 (by J. M. Hulls), 323-324

Bispham, E., T. Harrison and B. A. Sparkes (Eds), The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome (by P. Perkins), 265-267

Bücher, F., Verargumentierte Geschichte: Exempla romana im politischen Diskurs der späten römischen Republik (by C. Smith), 307-309

Cairns, D. (Ed.), Body Language in the Greek and Roman Worlds (by V. Huet), 294-295

Cappelletti, S., The Jewish Community of Rome from the Second Century B.C.E. to the Third Century C.E. (by M. H. Williams), 286-288

Carroll, M., Spirits of the Dead: Roman Funerary Commemoration in Western Europe (by J. Pearce), 367-368

Cébeillac-Gervasioni, M., L. Lamoine and F. Trément (Eds), Autocélébration des élites locales dans le monde romain. Context, textes, images (IIe s. av. J.C.–IIIe s. ap. J.C.) (by K. Lomas), 291-292

Chiesa, F., Tarquinia. Archeologia e prosopografia fra ellenismo e romanizzazione (by N. Terrenato), 349-356

Coates-Stephens, R., Porta Maggiore: Monument and Landscape: Archaeology and Topography of the Southern Esquiline from the Late Republican Period to the Present (by K. J. Hartswick), 352-354

Cordier, P., Nudités romaines: un problème d'histoire et d'anthropologie (by J. Tanner), 336-338

Dench, E., Romulus' Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian (by A. J. S. Spawforth), 275-276

Devine, A. M., and L. D. Stephens, Latin Word Order. Structured Meaning and Information (by P. Burton), 299-300

Elsner, J., and Rutherford, I. (Eds), Pilgrimage in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian Antiquity: Seeing the Gods (by J. B. Rives), 281-283

Erdkamp, P., The Grain Market in the Roman Empire. A Social, Political and Economic Study (by D. Rathbone), 290-291

Errington, R. M., Roman Imperial Policy from Julian to Theodosius (by M. Whitby), 376-377

Fantham, E., Julia Augusti: The Emperor's Daughter (by S. Sorek), 274-275

Fantham, E., The Roman World of Cicero's De Oratore (by T. Morgan), 307

Finn, R., Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice (313–450) (by C. Humfress), 389-390

Fulkerson, L., The Ovidian Heroine as Author: Reading, Writing and Community in the Heroides (by D. F. Kennedy), 320-321

Gaddis, M., 'There is No Crime For Those Who Have Christ': Religious Violence in the Christian Roman Empire (by E. A. Castelli), 387-389

Gibson, B., Statius Silvae 5: Edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary (by P. J. Heslin), 324-326

Gilhus, I. S., Animals, Gods and Humans: Changing Attitudes to Animals in Greek, Roman and Early Christian Ideas (by G. Clark), 296

Goffart, W., Barbarian Tides: the Migration Age and the Later Roman Empire (by H. Elton), 385-387

Haack, M.-L., Les Haruspices dans le monde romain (by J. Davies), 283-284

Hackworth Petersen, L., The Freedman in Roman Art and Art History (by M. George), 346-347

Hallett, C. H., The Roman Nude: Heroic Portrait Statuary 200BC–AD300 (by J. Tanner), 336-338

Harries, J., Cicero and the Jurists. From Citizen's Law to the Lawful State (by S. Treggiari), 270-271

Harris, W. V. (Ed.), The Spread of Christianity in the First Four Centuries: Essays in Explanation (by J. M. G. Barclay), 372-373

Heijmans, M., Arles durant l'antiquité tardive: de la duplex arelas à l'urbs Genesii (by G. Sears), 384-385

Hemelrijk, E. A., Matrona Docta: Educated Women in the Roman Elite from Cornelia to Julia Domna (by A. McCullough), 285-286

Henderson, J., 'Oxford Reds': Classic Commentaries on Latin Classics. R. G. Austin on Cicero and Virgil, C. J. Fordyce on Catullus, R. G. and R. G. M. Nisbet on Cicero (by C. Stray), 309-310

Hezser, C., Jewish Slavery in Antiquity (by M. H. Williams), 286-288

Højte, J. M., Roman Imperial Statue Bases: From Augustus to Commodus (by C. H. Hallett), 342-343

Hölkeskamp, K.-J., Senatus Populusque Romanus. Die politische Kultur der Republik – Dimensionen und Deutungen (by N. T. Elkins), 268-270

Johnson, T. S., A Symposion of Praise. Horace Returns to Lyric in Odes IV (by L. B. T. Houghton), 313-314

Keane, C., Figuring Genre in Roman Satire (by C. Connors), 316-318

Keay, S., M. Millett, L. Paroli and K. Strutt, Portus. An Archaeological Survey of the Port of Imperial Rome (by C. Bruun), 356-358

Kulikowski, M., Late Roman Spain and its Cities (by G. Sears), 384-385

La Regina, A. (Ed.), Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae: Suburbium. Volume Secondo C–F (by P. J. Goodman), 358-359

Laird, A., The Epic of America: An Introduction to Rafael Landívar and the Rusticatio Mexicana (by E. Buckley), 329-331

Lancaster, L. C., Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context (by R. Taylor), 361-364

Langlands, R., Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome (by M. J. Mordine), 277-279

Leach, E. W., The Social Life of Painting in Ancient Rome and the Bay of Naples (by P. Stewart), 345-346

Martini, W., Das Pantheon Hadrians in Rom: das Bauwerk und seine Deutung (by B. Burrell), 350-352

Mattingly, D., An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire, 54 BC–AD 409 (by S. Ireland), 364-366

McGill, S., Virgil Recomposed. The Mythological and Secular Centos in Antiquity (by R. Green), 326-327

Mclure, L. K., and C. A. Faraone (Eds), Prostitutes and Courtesans in the Ancient World (by R. Langlands), 279-281

Metzger, E., Litigation in Roman Law (by J. Harries), 293

Millar, F., A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (by R. Lim), 377-379

Neudecker, R., and P. Zanker (Eds), Lebenswelten. Bilder und Raüme in der römischen Stadt der Kaiserzeit (by B. E. Borg), 332-335

Newby, Z. L., Greek Athletics in the Roman World: Victory and Virtue (by A. Erskine), 347-348

Oebalus. Studi sulla Campania nell' antichità (by M. H. Crawford), 370

Osgood, J., Caesar's Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire (by C. E. W. Steel), 272

Parker, S. T., The Roman Frontier in Central Jordan: Final Report on the Limes Arabicus Project 1980–1989 (by B. Isaac), 370-371

Patterson, J. R., Landscapes and Cities. Rural Settlement and Civic Transformation in Early Imperial Italy (by R. Witcher), 288-290

Perutelli, A., Prolegomeni a Sisenna (by J. Briscoe), 300-302

Plaza, M., The Function of Humour in Roman Verse Satire: Laughing and Lying (by J. Henderson), 318-320

Putnam, M. C. J., Poetic Interplay: Catullus and Horace (by W. Fitzgerald), 310-311

Rapp, C., Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity: The Nature of Christian Leadership in an Age of Transition (by L. Grig), 373-375

Rees, R. (Ed.), 'Romane Memento'. Vergil in the Fourth Century (by M. R. Salzman), 327-329

Rees, R., Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (by H. A. Drake), 375-376

Ridley, R. T., The Emperor's Retrospect. Augustus' Res Gestae in Epigraphy, Historiography and Commentary (by G. Rowe), 273-274

Riggsby, A., Caesar in Gaul and Rome. War in Words (by C. B. Krebs), 305-307

Rossignani, M. P., M. Sannazaro and G. Legrottaglie (Eds), La Signora del Sarcofago. Una sepoltura di rango nella necropoli dell' Università Cattolica (by N. Christie), 369

Salzman, M. R., The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (by L. Grig), 382-383

Schultz, C. E., Women's Religious Activity in the Roman Republic (by K. Cooper), 284-285

Sear, F., Roman Theatres: An Architectural Study (by R. C. Beacham), 359-361

Settis, S., The Future of the 'Classical' (by J. I. Porter), 331-332

Shipley, G., J. Vanderspoel, D. Mattingly and L. Foxhall (Eds), The Cambridge Dictionary of Classical Civilization (by P. Perkins), 265-267

Slootjes, D., The Governor and his Subjects in the Later Roman Empire (by J. D. Hillner), 379-381

Smith, R. A., The Primacy of Vision in Virgil's Aeneid (by J. Elsner), 315-316

Smith, R. R. R., Aphrodisias II: Roman Portrait Statuary from Aphrodisias (by C. Vout), 340-342

Sogno, C., Q. Aurelius Symmachus: A Political Biography (by R. Chenault), 381-382

Stenhouse, W., Reading Inscriptions and Writing Ancient History: Historical Scholarship in the Late Renaissance (by B. Salway), 267-268

Stewart, P., Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response (by J. Trimble), 338-340

Syed, Y., Vergil's Aeneid and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse (by B. Cowan), 314-315

Tacoma, L. E., Fragile Hierarchies: The Urban Elite of Third-Century Roman Egypt (by R. Alston), 292-293

Varner, E., Mutilation and Transformation. Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture (by C. Machado), 343-345

Varro, Fragmenta omnia quae extant collegit recensuitque Marcello Salvadore, Pars II: De Vita Populi Romani libri IV (by G. Piras), 302-305

Welch, T. S., The Elegiac Cityscape. Propertius and the Meaning of Roman Monuments (by L. B. T. Houghton), 311-313

Wells, P. S., Beyond Celts, Germans and Scythians. Archaeology and Identity in Iron Age Europe (by M. Carroll), 366-367

Wyke, M. (Ed.), Julius Caesar in Western Culture (by L. Morgan), 297-298

Yarrow, L. M., Historiography at the End of the Republic: Provincial Perspectives on Roman Rule (by J. M. Madsen), 276-277

Zeiner, N. K., Nothing Ordinary Here: Statius as a Creator of Distinction in the Silvae (by P. J. Heslin), 324-326

 


JRS 2007 ABSTRACTS

 

 

Peter Heslin:  Augustus, Domitian and the So-called Horologium Augusti

 

Buchner’s reconstruction of the Horologium Augusti continues to be influential, despite fatal flaws demonstrated by Rodrίguez-Almeida and Schütz; so we begin by reviewing the state of the evidence. There is no credible indication that Augustus or his successors built an extensive sundial, so we must conclude with Schütz that what Pliny described and what the excavations of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) uncovered was a solar meridian line. We then proceed to discuss its significance in the context of the Augustan building programme. Since the DAI in fact discovered a Flavian reconstruction, the final question to be addressed is what purpose it served Domitian to rebuild a largely symbolic Augustan instrument that had grown inaccurate over time.

 

 

Sabine R. Huebner:  ‘Brother-Sister’ Marriage in Roman Egypt: a Curiosity of Humankind or a Widespread Family Strategy?

 

Scholars over the last few decades have been unable to find a convincing explanation for the widespread practice of brother-sister marriage among the common people in Roman Egypt, a social practice seemingly disregarding one of the most fundamental taboos. This paper now argues that these ‘incestuous’ marriages were in fact marriages between a biological child and an adopted one, a practice documented also for other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. Due to the severe mortality regime before the demographic transition, up to 30 per cent of all fathers did not have a male heir, and therefore adopting the son-in-law was a common succession and inheritance strategy in many pre-modern societies.

 

 

Andrew B. Gallia:  Reassessing the ‘Cumaean Chronicle’: Greek Chronology and Roman History in Dionysius of Halicarnassus

 

A biographical digression on the Cumaean tyrant Aristodemus Malacus in Dionysius’ Roman Antiquities has elicited widespread speculation about the existence of an early Greek source for events in Italy contemporaneous with the origins of the Roman Republic. The communis opinio about the importance of this hypothetical ‘Cumaean chronicle’ warrants reconsideration on two grounds. First, the events in question fall well before the development of Greek historical writing concerned with contemporary events. Second, we must not overlook the potential impact on the tradition of Roman historians who wished to integrate their city’s early history with that of the wider (Greek) world.

 

 

Jonathan R. W. Prag:  Auxilia and Gymnasia: A Sicilian Model of Roman Imperialism

 

This paper examines the evidence for military activity in the Republican provincia of Sicily from the Punic Wars to the Civil Wars, and the implications of this for our understanding of Republican Sicily and Republican imperialism. After the Second Punic War there was very little use of Roman or Italian allied soldiers on the island, but extensive use, by Rome, of local Sicilian soldiers. The rich evidence for gymnasia suggests one way in which this use of local manpower was based upon existing civic structures and encouraged local civic culture and identity. These conclusions prompt a reassessment of the importance of auxilia externa under the Roman Republic and of models for Republican imperial control of provinciae.

 

 

T. V. Buttrey:  Domitian, the Rhinoceros, and the Date of Martial’s Liber De Spectaculis

 

Martial’s Liber de Spectaculis is almost universally considered a work describing the remarkable 100-day games held by Titus on the inauguration of the new Flavian Amphitheatre in A.D. 80. There is in fact no internal evidence for this attribution, which has been justified by Martial’s praise of the building (“it sounds new”) and the inexact parallels between the description of Titus’ games in Dio and the events memorialized by Martial. The highpoint of animal activities in Martial concerns the rhinoceros, not mentioned at all by Dio. Under Domitian a sudden, extensive and unparalleled issue of coins with the rhinoceros type signals the advertisement of that rare beast in his games. The coins date to A.D. 83–85. It is to that period, and to the reign of Domitian, that Martial’s work should be dated.

 

 

Stephen Hinds:  Martial’s Ovid / Ovid’s Martial

 

This paper allows Ovid to shape a reading of Martial, and Martial to shape a reading of Ovid. It proceeds through close readings of some forty epigrams, and is organized into three large sections respectively addressing receptions in Martial of Ovid’s poetry of elegiac love (I), of exile (II), and of myth (III). The final section offers sustained discussion of Martial’s early Apophoreta (Book 14) and Liber Spectaculorum. Issues addressed include genre, intertextuality, sexual vocabulary and euphemism, exile as a figure for status anxiety, the metapoetics of book production, ecphrastic movement between art and epigrammatic text, and the aesthetics of myth in the Roman arena.

 

 

Cam Grey:  Contextualizing Colonatus: The Origo of the Late Roman Empire

 

Building on recent scholarship concerning the ‘colonate of the late Roman Empire’, and focusing in particular upon the vocabulary used in the legal sources, this paper offers three propositions. First, the colonatus of the legislation was not a legal shorthand for the ‘colonate’ of modern historiographical debate. Second, the coloni of the legislation were not a discrete group of individuals subjected to a definable, articulated set of restrictions. Finally, it is not colonatus but rather the origo and the link it created between individuals and the land which is the key to the tax system of the late Roman Empire.

 

 

Alison E. Cooley, Stephen Mitchell and Benet Salway:  Roman Inscriptions 2001–2005

 

This paper surveys work relating to Roman inscriptions published during the period 2001–2005. The main aims are to signal important newly discovered inscriptions, significant reinterpretations of previously published texts, new trends in the scholarship on the subject and recent studies drawing heavily on epigraphic sources, as well as to report on the progress of major publishing projects.