Nathan Rosenstein:  Aristocrats and Agriculture in the Middle and Late Republic, 1–26

Jan Felix Gaertner:  Livy’s Camillus and the Political Discourse of the Late Republic, 27–52

Sofie Remijsen and Willy Clarysse:  Incest or Adoption? Brother-Sister Marriage in Roman Egypt Revisited, 53–61

Fergus Millar:  Rome, Constantinople and the Near Eastern Church under Justinian: Two Synods of c.e. 536, 62–82

Kyle Harper:  The Greek Census Inscriptions of Late Antiquity, 83–119

A. J. B. Sirks:  The Colonate in Justinian’s Reign, 120–143

J. A. North:  Caesar at the Lupercalia, 144–160

Neil McLynn:  Crying Wolf: The Pope and the Lupercalia, 161–175

J. A. North and Neil McLynn:  Postscript to the Lupercalia: from Caesar to Andromachus, 176–181

M. H. Crawford:  The Text of the Lex Irnitana, 182



REVIEWS (in alphabetical order)


Adams, C., Land Transport in Roman Egypt: a Study of Economics and Administration in a Roman Province (by J. Rowlandson), 221–222

Adams, J. N., The Regional Diversification of Latin, 200 b.c.–a.d. 600 (by A. Mullen), 223–224

Ancona, R., and E. Greene (Eds), Gendered Dynamics in Latin Love Poetry (by G. Williams), 231–233

Badel, C., La Noblesse de l’empire romain: les masques et la vertu (by C. Edwards), 199–201

Beck, R., The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire – Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun (by A. Lisdorf), 216–217

Bell, A., Spectacular Power in the Greek and Roman City (by C. Galbraith), 189–190

Borchhardt, J., Der Fries vom Kenotaph für Gaius Caesar in Limyra (by A. J. M. Kropp), 253–254

Bowersock, G. W., Mosaics as History: the Near East from Late Antiquity to Islam (by W. Wootton), 279–280

Bowman, A. K., P. Garnsey and A. Cameron (Eds), The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd edn), Vol. XII: the Crisis of Empire, A.D. 193–337 (by C. Ando), 266–268

Bricault, L., M. J. Versluys and P. G. P. Meyboom (Eds), Nile into Tiber. Egypt in the Roman World. Proceedings of the IIIrd International Conference of Isis Studies, Leiden, May 11–14 2005 (by U. Rothe), 217–219

Broccia, G., La rappresentazione del tempo nell’opera di Orazio (by M. Pavlou), 235–236

Cadotte, A., La Romanisation des dieux. L’interpretatio romana en Afrique du Nord sous le haut-empire (by J. P. Moore), 213

Capponi, L., Augustan Egypt: the Creation of a Roman Province (by R. Alston), 220–221

Chrzanovski, L., L’urbanisme des villes romaines de Transpadane (Lombardie, Piémont, Vallée d’Aoste) (by R. Häussler), 260–261

Coleman, K., M. Valerii Martialis Liber Spectaculorum: Text, Translation and Commentary (by L. Roman), 247–249

Conybeare, C., The Irrational Augustine (by L. Ayres), 277–279

Corbier, M., Donner à voir, donner à lire. Mémoire et communication dans la Rome ancienne (by A. E. Cooley), 197–198

Corbo, C., Paupertas: la legislazione tardoantica (IV–V sec. d.c.) (by C. Grey), 274–275

Cuomo, S., Technology and Culture in Greek and Roman Antiquity (by T. E. Rihll), 201–202

D’Alessandro Behr, F., Feeling History: Lucan, Stoicism and the Poetics of Passion (by T. Murgatroyd), 243

Davis, P. J., Ovid and Augustus: A Political Reading of Ovid’s Erotic Poems (by T. Habinek), 239––240

De Pretis, A., ‘Epistolarity’ in the First Book of Horace’s Epistles (by L. Holford-Strevens), 241–243

Den Boeft, J., J. W. Drijvers, D. den Hengst and H. C. Teitler (Eds), Ammianus After Julian: the Reign of Valentinian and Valens in Books 26–31 of the Res Gestae (by S. K. R. Belcher), 270–271

Derda, T., ARSINOITHS NOMOS. The Administration of the Fayum under Roman Rule (by A. K. Bowman), 222

Dignas, B., and E. Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity. Neighbours and Rivals (by M. Whitby), 271–272

Dillon, S., and K. Welch (Eds), Representations of War in Ancient Rome (by J. Armstrong), 185–186

Diosono, F., Collegia. Le associazioni professionali nel mondo romano (by J. Liu), 214–216

Drinkwater, J., The Alamanni and Rome 213–496. Caracalla to Clovis (by M. Kulikowski), 269–270

Eckstein, A. M., Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War, and the Rise of Rome (by A. Erskine), 187–188

Edmondson, J., S. Mason and J. Rives (Eds), Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome (by B. McGing), 193–195

Fitzgerald, W., Martial: the World of the Epigram (by G. Nisbet), 245–247

Flower, H. I., The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture (by A. Yakobson), 198–199

Ganiban, R. T., Statius and Virgil: The Thebaid and the Reinterpretation of the Aeneid (by P. J. Heslin), 243–245

García y García, L., Pupils, Teachers and Schools in Pompeii: Childhood, Youth and Culture in the Roman Era (by R. Laurence), 202–203

Giavarini, C. (Ed.), The Basilica of Maxentius. The Monument, its Materials, Construction and Stability (by E. V. Thomas), 255–257

Gibson, R. K., Excess and Restraint: Propertius, Horace and Ovid’s Ars Amatoria (by S. J. Harrison), 233–235

Gibson, R., S. Green and A. Sharrock (Eds), The Art of Love: Bimillennial Essays on Ovid’s Ars Amatoria and Remedia Amoris (by G. Williams), 231–233

Glinister, F., and C. Woods with J. A. North and M. H. Crawford, Verrius, Festus and Paul: Lexicography, Scholarship and Society (by J. A. Howley), 203–204

Gonzales, A., and J.-Y. Guillaumin (Eds), Autour des Libri Coloniarum. Colonisation et colonies dans le monde romain. Actes du Colloque International (Besançon, 16–18 Octobre 2003) (by B. Campbell), 192–193

Goodman, M., Rome and Jerusalem: the Clash of Ancient Civilizations (by D. Noy), 195–197

Goodman, P. J., The Roman City and its Periphery: From Rome to Gaul (by N. Morley), 262–263

Graham, E.-J., The Burial of the Urban Poor in Italy in the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire (by J. Pearce), 264

Gudea, N., and T. Lobüscher, Dacia: eine römische Provinz zwischen Karpaten und Schwarzen Meer (by I. P. Haynes), 264–266

Haas, J., Die Umweltkrise des 3. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. im Nordwesten des Imperium Romanum. Interdisziplinäre Studien zu einem Aspekt der allgemeinen Reichskrise im Bereich der beiden Germaniae sowie der Belgica und Raetia (by W. Scheidel), 268–269

Hartswick, K. J., The Gardens of Sallust: a Changing Landscape (by S. Myers), 258–260

Herklotz, F., Prinzeps und Pharao. Der Kult des Augustus in Ägypten (by M. J. Versluys), 219–220

Hollis, A. S., Fragments of Roman Poetry c. 60 BC–AD 20: Edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary (by D. M. Possanza), 227–229

Horsfall, N. M., Virgil, Aeneid 3. A Commentary (by M. Carter), 229–231

Horsfall, N. M., Virgil, Aeneid 7. A Commentary (by M. Carter), 229–231

Horsfall, N. M., Virgil, Aeneid 11. A Commentary (by M. Carter), 229–231

Humfress, C., Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (by I. Sandwell), 275–276

Humm, M., Appius Claudius Caecus. La République accomplie (by E. Bispham), 188–189

Hunter, R., The Shadow of Callimachus: Studies in the Reception of Hellenistic Poetry at Rome (by A. S. Gratwick), 224–227

Isayev, E., Inside Ancient Lucania. Dialogues in History and Archaeology (by H. W. Horsnæs), 261–262

Jones, F., Juvenal and the Satiric Genre (by J. Henderson), 249–250

Kahlos, M., Debate and Dialogue. Christian and Pagan Cultures c. 360–430 (by U. Lehtonen), 276–277

Kehoe, D., Law and the Rural Economy in the Roman Empire (by L. De Ligt), 208–209

Kelly, G. P., A History of Exile in the Roman Republic (by S. T. Cohen), 191

Littlewood, R. J., A Commentary on Ovid Fasti Book VI (by M. Robinson), 237–238

McDonnell, M., Roman Manliness. Virtus and the Roman Republic (by C. Williams), 204–205

McNelis, C., Statius’ Thebaid and the Poetics of Civil War (by P. J. Heslin), 243–245

Mekacher, N., Die vestalischen Jungfrauen in der römischen Kaiserzeit (by C. E. Schultz), 211–213

Morello, R., and A. D. Morrison (Eds), Ancient Letters: Classical and Late Antique Epistolography (by L. Holford-Strevens), 241–243

Murgatroyd, P., Mythical Monsters in Classical Literature (by D. Lowe), 252

Oakley-Brown, L., Ovid and the Cultural Politics of Translation in Early Modern England (by P. Hardie), 240–241

Pasco-Pranger, M., Founding the Year: Ovid’s Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (by A. Chiu), 236–237

Rehak, P., Imperium and Cosmos: Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius (by C. F. Noreña), 257–258

Rimell, V., Ovid’s Lovers: Desire, Difference and the Poetic Imagination (by T. Habinek), 239–240

Rizzo, P. F., Gli Albori della Sicilia cristiana. Secoli I–V (by D. Sami), 273–274

Roller, M., Dining Posture in Ancient Rome: Bodies, Values and Status (by M. Harlow), 207–208

Rosenstein, N., Rome at War: Farms, Families, and Death in the Middle Republic (by J. Armstrong), 185–186

Santoro L’Hoir, F., Tragedy, Rhetoric and the Historiography of Tacitus’ Annales (by R. Ash), 250–251

Savino, E., Campania tardoantica (284–604) (by D. Sami), 273–274

Speidel, M. P., Emperor Hadrian's Speeches to the African Army – A New Text (by B. Campbell), 209–210

Swain, S. (Ed.), Seeing the Face, Seeing the Soul. Polemon’s Physiognomy from Classical Antiquity to Medieval Islam (by P. Van Nuffelen), 206–207

Tran, N., Les Membres des associations romaines. Le rang social des collegiati en Italie et en Gaule (by J. Liu), 214–216

Wardle, D., Cicero on Divination: De Divinatione Book 1 Translated with Introduction and Historical Commentary (by M. Schofield), 210–211

Welch, K. E., The Roman Amphitheatre: From its Origins to the Colosseum (by N. T. Elkins), 254–255

Wiseman, T. P., The Myths of Rome (by S. J. Northwood), 183–184





Nathan Rosenstein:  Aristocrats and Agriculture in the Middle and Late Republic


This paper asks how much money Republican aristocrats could make from agriculture and approaches the question from the perspective of supply rather than demand. Potential growers of wheat, wine, and grain were so numerous in second- and first-century b.c. Italy that its urban population could not have provided a market large enough to enable each of them to derive a substantial income from meeting its demand for staple foods. Agriculture is not likely to have furnished the economic foundation for most senators’ lavish life-styles. Instead, money-lending and other commercial activities were where the profits were, while prestige and similar non-economic factors guided their decisions about investments in land.


Jan Felix Gaertner:  Livy’s Camillus and the Political Discourse of the Late Republic


An analysis of the parallel accounts in Livy, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Plutarch shows that the seemingly Augustan traits of Livy’s Camillus already featured in late annalistic sources. Camillus’ speech at Livy 5.51–4 condenses and expands late annalistic themes and fuses them with Ciceronian reminiscences. One reason for this fusion is Cicero’s own self-fashioning as a new Camillus (particularly, in his post-exilic speeches). The accounts of the Civil War suggest that Pompey and Caesar, too, exploited the Camillus paradigm. The parallels between Livy’s Camillus and Augustus probably result from the latter’s attempt to silence the Republican opposition by appropriating one of its most powerful paradigms.


Sofie Remijsen and Willy Clarysse:  Incest or Adoption? Brother-Sister Marriage in Roman Egypt Revisited


In JRS 97 Sabine Huebner argued that the brother-sister marriages in Roman Egypt could be explained as marriages between an adopted son and a natural daughter, a widespread family strategy in the Eastern Mediterranean. Remijsen and Clarysse now return to the traditional view that Egyptians did marry their full sisters. Ancient authors considered brother-sister marriages as a peculiarity of the whole Egyptian population and, moreover, papyrological sources do not prove any connection between adoption and brother-sister marriage. Neither the household size nor the onomastic pattern in families with brother-sister marriages are consistent with the usual adoption practices of the Eastern Mediterranean.


Fergus Millar:  Rome, Constantinople and the Near Eastern Church under Justinian: Two Synods of c.e. 536


This article surveys three important and interlinked aspects of Justinian’s policy in his first decade: reconquest in the West; the establishment of a set of fundamental texts of Roman Law; and the achievement of unity of belief within the Church. In that context, it looks at the remarkable record preserved in Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum III, of five successive sessions of a synod held at Constantinople, and one synod in Jerusalem. Its purpose is both to illustrate contacts and influences across the Mediterranean and, more particularly, to bring out distinctive features of the Church in the Near Eastern provinces.


Kyle Harper:  The Greek Census Inscriptions of Late Antiquity


This article reconsiders a set of Late Roman inscriptions which record the tax liabilities of dozens of landowners in terms of post-Diocletianic fiscality. The stones, from eleven cities in the Aegean and western Asia Minor, are evaluated as evidence for the social and economic history of the Late Empire, challenging Jones’ fundamental study in which the inscriptions are read as a sign of structural crisis. With their non-Egyptian provenance, the inscriptions offer unique, quantitative insights into land-ownership and labour. The inscriptions reveal surprising levels of slave labour in the eastern provinces, particularly in a new inscription from Thera. This last document allows, for the first time, an empirical analysis of the demographics of an estate-based population of slaves in antiquity.


A. J. B. Sirks: The Colonate in Justinian’s Reign


Justinian’s codification may be considered a coherent aggregate of all the law existing in a.d. 530–534. On the basis of this and his subsequent legislation it appears that the condicio coloniaria existed in his reign in two forms. One, the adscripticiate, based on a contract by which a person fixated his origo from a town onto an estate. This implied his coming under the potestas of the estate owner and the treatment of his possessions as if peculium, while his descendants were tied to this origo and its implications. The other, a colonate with the origo also fixed to an estate, but without the implications mentioned before: hence ‘free’ coloni. This latter colonate came primarily into existence if an adscripticius had performed services during thirty years.


J. A. North:  Caesar at the Lupercalia


This article examines the context in which Caesar, enthroned in state, attended the Festival of the Lupercalia of 44 b.c. at which he was offered and rejected a diadem; it asks the question what the ritual had to offer to Caesar. An examination of the Festival’s character and tradition suggests (a) that it took the form of a street carnival, (b) that it was concerned simultaneously with the purification, fertility and protection of the people of Rome, and (c) that it had no element of a coronation in its rituals. The suggestion is offered that Caesar’s prime motivation was to associate himself with the founders of the city, since he and his family were receiving the honour of a new group of Luperci, set up to parallel those of Romulus and Remus. If Antony’s offering of the diadem was pre-arranged, the light-hearted and provocative atmosphere of the occasion strongly suggests that the plan must always have been that Caesar should publicly reject the offer, as he did. But the whole incident illustrates the vigour and creativity of religious life at the time.


Neil McLynn:  Crying Wolf: The Pope and the Lupercalia


This article examines the Contra Andromachum, the open letter in which Gelasius of Rome (a.d. 492–496) condemned the continued involvement of members of the now Christian élite in the Lupercalia. It is suggested that the Pope’s argument is less straightforward than has been supposed: the current status and recent history of the festival are left unclear, and the Pope’s allegations about the motives of its sponsors are of dubious credibility. Of more significance is the public aspect of the festival, and in particular the opportunities it provided for those who organized it to advertise a connection with the heritage of Rome. 


J. A. North and Neil McLynn:  Postscript to the Lupercalia: from Caesar to Andromachus


As a postscript to the two articles on the Lupercalia, and to bridge the gap in time between them, it is argued that there is no evidence to suggest a major reform of the festival in the period of Augustus’ principate and that the traditional celebration continued into the Empire. There does, however, seem to be artistic evidence that from the third century onwards the celebrations became more dramatic, perhaps, violent, implying that there was some reform, perhaps to be connected with the suggestion inferred from Gelasius’ text that the Luperci or those who took over responsibility from them started to employ actors instead of the original priestly runners. We bring evidence to support this theory.


M. H. Crawford:  The Text of the Lex Irnitana


Some revisions to the text of the Lex Irnitana published in JRS 76 (1986).